What Are The Five Main Types Of Pollutions?

Defination Of Environmental Pollution :

Different Types Of Pollutions

The unthoughtful race for industrial development and unlimited exploitation of natural resources has adversely affected all forms of life in the biosphere. This has threatened the survival of all living organisms. Air has become dangerous to breathe, water is unfit to drink, soil is unsuitable for crops, dangerous to breathe, water is unfit to drink, soil is unsuitable for crops, aquatic ecosystems antagonized marine creatures. The industrialization has given us radioactivity, dangerous effluents, poisonous gases, heavy metals etc.

in our environment. Thanks to pollutions, all these are the gifts of industrialization to modern civilization.

POLLUTION is defined as an undesirable change in chemical, physical and biological characteristics of air, water and soil which create a potential health hazard to living organism and harmfully affects the life. Pollution is caused by pollutants.

POLLUTANTS may be defined as the substance that cause pollution. It may be solid, liquid or gaseous.

Five Different Types Of Pollutions

There are several kinds of pollutions now a days. Main among them are the following :


While the greenhouse gases and the CFCs may be considered as global pollutants ( because they potentially harm the climate system and the stratospheric ozone layer worlwide), the term “air pollution” generally refers to substance that on local and regional scales directly harm animals, plants, and people and their artifacts. There have been complaints about air quality,especially in cities.

Causes Of Air Pollution :Different Types Of Pollutions

  1. Carbon compounds
  2. Sulphur compounds
  3. Nitrogen oxides
  4. Ozone
  5. Toxicants other than heavy metals

Effects Of Air Pollution

  1. Irritation of eye, nose and throat
  2. Irritation of the respiratory system
  3. Ozone causes necrosis
  4. SO2 bleaches the leaf surfaces and causes chlorosis


Water pollution may be defined as ‘ the presence of impurities and foreign substance in water in such a quantity that lowers its quality, makes unfit for use and becomes a health hazard’

The water quality for human consumption should be pure without impurities. It needs to have some minerals in order to give it some taste. Pure water should conform to the water quality standards set for human consumption. These are

  • It should be odourless
  • It should be free of pathogenic organisms
  • It should be non-corrrosive

Causes Of Water Pollution :Different Types Of Pollutions

  1. Industrial effluents
  2. Sewage and other wastes
  3. Agricultural discharge

Effects Of Water Pollution

  1. Oil pollutants
  2. Non biodegradable pesticides
  3. Waterborne infectious diseases


Soil pollution may be defined as the contamination caused by chemicals and other substances resulting in loss of the productive of soil. The loss of productive is in terms of yield of the crops. Besides the damaging contanminants, there are some other types of contaminants also that do not cause any detrimental effect to the plants, but create adverse effect on human being and the animals who consume such plants.

Causes Of Soil Pollution

  1. Use of chemicals to raise the crop yields
  2. Salination
  3. Soil erosion
  4. Disposal of medical waste

Effects Of Soil Pollution

  1.  Urban solid wastes such as rubbish , broken articles etc
  2. Pesticides affect the normal metabolism and tissues
  3. Garbage, sludge and dead animals create bad odour which causes chronic diseases


Marine pollution is global  problem. It affects the health of the oceans near both developed and developing countries. Some marine pollution issues ar nativehowever several have international implications. it’s a complez drawbackinvolving the economic, technological and legal aspects. The transportation and alternative activities on ocean has significantly enlarged currently.

Causes Of Marine Pollution

1.Oil from submarine flowing
2.Oil wells and off- shore drilling
3.Deep ocean marketing of nuclear waste

Effects Of Marine Pollution

1.It destroys the oceans food sources
2.It poses threat to flora and fauna
3.It destroys the estuaries scheme
4.It destroys the marine life and distrubs the marine scheme

                                                                    NOISE POLLUTION

Creation of sounds may be a means that of communication. Sound may be of various intensities. A low intensity sound is pleasant, whereas a loud sound is unpleasant. A loud intensity sound is generally referred to as noise. It may be a pleasant sound as that of the musical instruments, and unpleasant sound as that of a cracker.

Thus, noise pollution may be defined as ‘ a sound of unpleasant and annoying nature’.

Effects Of Noise Pollution

  1. Headche
  2. Depression
  3. Fatigue
  4. Irritation
  5. Pain in heart
  6. Damage to ear drum





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